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Land and Soil
The Northern Province embraces five districts namely, Jaffna, Kilinochchi, MannarMullaitivu, and Vavuniya. This covers an area of 8,848.21 sq.km accounting around 13.22% of the total land area of the island. This region has a forest cover of 1,981.30 sq.km. Inland water area covers 302.9.sq.km.
The land of the region is relatively flat and of low elevation towards the coast. Six major soilgroups have been identified in the region.The dominant group of soil in the region is Reddish Brown Earth (RBE). The association of Low HumicGley (LHG) with RBE soil (92%) is well suited for paddy cultivation. Red YellowLatesol, Non-Calsic Brown soil and Grumusol exist in Kilinochchi, Jaffna and Mannarareasrespectively. The RBE has low organic matter content and the nitrogen and phosphorusstatus is usually low while potassium status varies from medium to low. These soils are
verywell supplied in calcium and magnesium, and they have a very good cat-ion exchangecapacity. By tropical standards, these soils could be considered as having a very goodchemical quality. The other soil types are alluvial of variable drainage and texture (4%), RockKnob Plain (2%), Erosion remnants (1%) andSolodizedSolonets&Solonchaks (1%)

Weather and Climate

Sri Lanka enjoys a typical tropical monsoonal climate. The Northern Province tends to be hot and dry in the dry season (February to September), and moderately cool and wet in the wet season (October to January). The province’s climate is of the tropical kind and therefore during monsoons there is always the chance of a deluge. In the lowlands the climate is typically tropical with the average temperature is around 28° to 30° for the year. However, on the whole, January is the coolest month and May is the hottest month. Relative Humidity varies from 70% during the day to 90% at night. The Dry Zone of the Sri Lanka is the north and east of the island, this region is affected by the north east monsoon(December to March) and southwest monsoon (June to October). It is thought to be dry because most of the rains fall during the north-east monsoon. Annual rainfall is less than 1250 mm in the north west and south east of the Inland. It has two rainy seasons South West Monsoon- May to August, North East Monsoon- November to February

The Northern Province is still pre-dominantly an agricultural region having crops, livestock and fisheries as pivotal sub sectors. Reflecting the rapid expansion in income generation activities in the province, the GDP growth rate was highest in the province at 25.9 % in 2012 and it’s share of 4% to the national GDP and there is an improvement when compared to 3.7% recorded in 2011.This shows that there are potentials in the Northern Province and that should be tapped. The structure of the provincial economy has not changed over the period. However, Agriculture, including Fisheries and Animal husbandry which is the mainstay of the economy has shown positive growth after 2009.
Therefore, the agricultural sector contributed 19.6% of GDP composition to the provincial economy in 2012. The growth rate has now reached a slight positive phenomena resulting in a per capita Income of Rs 288,000 in 2012 and as it was Rs202,000 in 2011.

Agriculture is the dominant productive sector in the Northern Province. Result of the rapid development of the agriculture sector in the Northern Province; paddy harvesting reached the level of 217,149mt in 2013 and the Province was able to supply its surplus to other parts of the country. 56,277 ha highlands brought under annual crops, perennial crops and homesteads cultivation in 2013.

The livestock industry is becoming an important field for entrepreneurs in the Northern Province. This sector is considered as an additional source of income for the farming society in the region. Several stakeholders i.e. government sector, private sector and NGOO are involved to strengthen the sector through their various projects and programmes. Average milk production reached 70,063 liters per day and milk collection reached 27,150 liter per day in 2013. Meat production that chicken reached to 11,287 Kg. per day, beef reached 7,836 Kg. per day and mutton reached 1,887 Kg. per day. The egg production reached 85,760 nos. per day.

Irrigation sector is one of inter related sector to the agriculture and inland fishing. Therefore, hundred thousands of people in the province are dependent on irrigation for their livelihood activities. So, this sector takes a vital role in the Province. 45 medium irrigation schemes and 9 major irrigation schemes come under the Provincial Irrigation sector. In addition to this, there are 3 major tanks that come under the central administration. There are 2,066 tanks and ponds also under minor irrigation. Nearly
70,181 acres irrigable areas came under irrigation facilities in 2013.

The Education sector needs significant changes at all levels to bring Sri Lanka as a Knowledge hub. The Northern Province takes this opportunity to accomplish the national goal according to the “MahindhaChinthana”. The number of functional schools have been increased to 989 out of 1,066 to serving for 252,059 students with 14,583 teachers in 2013. National programmes such as 1,000 schools and 5,000 feeder primary school programmes are being successfully implemented in the Province. Child friendly approach has been introduced in 500 schools. Mahindodaya Lap facilities have been provided to 90 schools in the Province. Infrastructure facilities are also continuously provided wherever the requirements are identified through various sources. Therefore,the adult literacy rate increased to 88% and the rate of attendance at schools has also  increased to 73% in 2013. Sports and cultural affairs also are included as sub sectors Further to the secondary and primary education, the higher education and tertiary and vocational education centers are also established in the province such as University of Jaffna, Vavuniya Campus of the University of Jaffna, Open University of Sri Lanka, National College of Educations, Teachers’ Training Schools, Technical College and Advance Technical Institute being the main educational Institutions in the province.
Health is the wealth of our society; therefore, the health sector takes prominent role in the Province. The sector serves through western medicine and eastern medicine to the people in the Province. There is one teaching hospital, 4 general hospitals, 7 base hospitals, 52 divisional hospitals 33 primary medical care units , 5 district AyurvedicHospitals, 11 Ayurvedic Central Dispensaries and 69 free Ayurvedic dispensaries which are functioning in the province. Primary, Secondary health care
institutions, curative as well as preventive institutions are mainly managed by the Provincial Health Department. Maternal and child health care services have been extended to the peripheral areas and human resource capacities also strengthened in 2013. As a result, maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate have been reduced. Dengue eradication programme and local level nutrition intervention programmes also have been implemented in 2013.

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